M.R. Ramadan§, A. Assar ¶, M.A.S. Mohamed § , and H.A. Risha¶
§Arab Academy for Science & Technology, Alexandria, Egypt
¶ Engineering Faculty, Tanta University, Egypt.
An industrial product is conventionally considered safe as long as its failure effects are unlikely to
endanger solely man life and his properties. FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) is an
assessment comparative technique adopted by a certain production plant in order to monitor any
progress achieved in its product safety. The present study, however, proposes a more comprehensive
sense of the product safety so broadened as to also avoid detrimental effects on all living creatures and
natural resources in the global Environmental System (ES). Accordingly, the safety measures
traditionally used in the FMEA technique are carefully revised and properly reformulated here in order
to define their new environmental counterparts.
In addition to using the conventional time domain, the study adds three graphical domains suitable to
display the FMEA measures. Thus, successive reductions in safety threats and risks owing to elaborate
design efforts are readily illustrated as a series of changing geometric forms. Each one of such domains
displays both the overall threat as well as its main components; being the occurrence, the detection, and
As an application of the suggested approach, the safety of automobiles as an indispensable industrial
product is investigated to estimate its so far known adverse impact on two entities of ES; being man and
air. It is found that the fast-paced knowledge constantly discovers hidden or overlooked automobileinvoked
threats that call for incessant design innovations and strict implementation policy.